In Brasilia anti-tobacco laws have halved number of smokers
In Brasilia strict anti-tobacco measures in 1989-2010 have caused reduction of smokers by 46 %.
In 1990 Brasilia has introduced special tax on cigarettes, but from 1996 has made obligatory cigarette packs with graphic warnings about smoking harm and began to introduce restrictions on smoking in public places and other measures.
Prices on cigarette, considering inflation to 2010 have increased by 2.3 times as compared to 1989 and percentage of smokers among population for this period has reduced from 34.8 % to 18.5 %.
David Levi from Georgetown University and his colleagues from National Cancer Institute in Rio-de-Janeiro have estimated contribution of anti-tobacco special measures in this result.
Authors of the research have adapted for Brasilia special computer model SimSmoke that allows modeling introduction of one or another restrictive measures and their influence on number of smokers in various age groups and among men and women.
According to forecasts without additional measures percentage of smokers among population generally to 2010 would have reduced insignificantly, up to 31 %, only due to voluntary smoking refusal.
At the same time in case of scenario that corresponds to measures taken by Brazilian authorities, percentage of smokers was reducing in average up to 17 % - more than by 50 5 from 1989. Result of "tough" scenario is by 46 % lower than of the "mild" one with lack of special measures and according to estimations of scientists this discrepancy among two variants increases after 2010 as well.
Almost 48 % of relative reduction of smokers scientists relate to taxes and increase of price of cigarettes, about 14 % to smoking restrictions in public places, 20 % to campaigns in mass media and marketing and tobacco products advertisement restriction.
For special medical program of supporting smoking refusal and warnings about its harm fall 10 % and 8 % accordingly of smokers' percentage reduction, however, as article authors' mark, importance of these measures grows in long term period for forecast to 2050.
According to researchers opinion, Example of Brasilia shows, that even for country with average income level - "it is struggle that can be won" and "anti-tobacco" measures, not requiring significant increase of public expenses, "give obvious dividends" in the form of premature death reduction.